Emergence of Mosquito-borne Bunya-, Toga-, and Reoviruses in Central Europe
  Key Words  
  Arbovirus, Tahyna virus, Sedlec virus, RT-PCR, phylogenetic analysis
  Norbert Nowotny, Tamás Bakonyi and Zdenek Hubálek
  In this paper the most important ecological characteristics of arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses and the recent emergence of some pathogens in Europe are reviewed. In early July 2007 the first autochthonous Chikungunya virus outbreak occurred in Europe between July and September 2007. A local transmission cycle involving Aedes albopictus mosquitoes was demonstrated. In 2006, Bluetongue virus emerged for the first time in north-western Europe. Culicoides imicola, which is not present in north-western Europe, is the principal vector; in north-western Europe, however, other Culicoides species served as vectors. Tahyna and Sedlec bunyaviruses were first isolated in central Europe; Tahyna virus is known to be a human pathogen, Sedlec virus was isolated from a wild bird, and it is unknown whether this virus may also affect humans, farm, or pet animals. Phylogenetic analysis of Tahyna virus indicates that the central European strains of the virus are closely related to each other. Genetic investigations of Sedlec virus shows that it is a member of the Simbu group of orthobunyaviruses, and related to Oropouche virus and Akabane virus. Integrated research of entomologists, virologists and other experts is necessary to develop of early warning networks and control systems for the protection of the European human and animal populations.