Report 
  Title  
  Laboratory and field evaluation of household insecticide products and public health insecticides against vector mosquitoes and house flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Muscidae)
  Key Words  
  Pest control, vector control, fly control
  Author  
  J. Zairi and Y.W. Lee
  Abstract  
  The effectiveness of insecticide formulations for public health pests is the key towards the success of vector control programmes. Evaluation of the efficacy of the abovementioned insecticide formulations by independent research institutes is very important before it can be registered and commercialized. Global and Regional trends on laboratory and field evaluation of household insecticide products and public health insecticides against vector mosquitoes and house flies are basically group into three phases. Phase I is a laboratory evaluation and should reflect the actual efficacy of the insecticide in the actual application. Glass Chamber method (0.7 x 0.7 x 0.7 m) and Peet-Grady Chamber method (1.8 x 1.8 x 1.8 cm) are among the most popular testing methods used for adult flying insects. Paper cup method and earthen jar method are used for the evaluation of larvicides. Phase II is only conducted after promising results are shown in the Phase I evaluation. Phase II studies consist of small scale field trial inclusive of indoor and outdoor assessments of space spray formulations, residual assessments of impregnated bed-nets, efficacy evaluation of personal protection products, earthen jar assessment of mosquito larvae and studies on toxic baits against housefly toxic. Village scale or larger scale field trials in Phase III are carried out only after the products are found to be effective at the Phase II assessment stage. Phase III studies are generally expected to provide the actual control outcome from the use of the pesticides such as reduction in the density of the target species or reduction in disease cases.