Risk Assessment and Management of Mosquito-born Diseases in the European Regio
  Key Words  
  vector-borne diseases, virus transmission, vector capacity, mosquito
  Marija Zgomba and Dusan Petric
  The transmission of arboviruses is a major risk factor in many regions of the world including Europe. Continuing eco-climatic changes create suitable conditions for the re-emergence vector-borne diseases in Europe. Malaria was eradicated in all countries of the Region in the early 1960s except some parts of Turkey. Incidence of malaria remains relatively high in areas where malaria is endemic. The situation is complicated by the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum in the bordering countries. European mosquito species and those recently introduced seams to have developed high competence for autochthonous and allochtonous viruses. Human and equine West Nile fever outbreaks have been regularly reported from the countries of southern and central Europe for almost 50 years. West Nile Virus has become a permanent expression of the European ecological and public health landscape. Some countries implemented a West Nile Virus management plan. The establishment of the European Mosquito Control Association manifests the urgent need for developing regional mosquito abatement cooperation. A chikungunya virus outbreak occurred in the region of Emilia Romagna, Italy and was vectored by Aedes albopictus. This was the first documented transmission of chikungunya virus at the European continent. Not only through the trade of used tires the risk of spreading the species is possible but also that a focus of Ae. albopictus has developed in 2007 in the Nederland. This record includes Germany in the group of 14 European countries where the species has been documented. Mosquito species responsible for pathogen transmission are in Anopheles and Aedes genera. Species belonging to Culex genera were believed to be “nuisance” mosquito population. However, in 2007 it was also demonstrated that in southern Europe, Culex species are responsible for Dirofilaria cases both in animals and humans. This evidence emphasizes the magnitude of the health importance associated to the 94 mosquito species recorded so far in Europe.