Report 
  Title  
  Bait aversion by German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): The influence and interference of nutrition
  Key Words  
  Nutritional status, bait development
  Author  
  S.A. Kells
  Abstract  
  Bait consumption is a complex interaction of behaviors and physiology / biochemistry mechanisms. It starts with a single premise that the response to a shortage or an impending shortage of nutrients required for maintenance, growth and development. Shortages may be acute such as a daily requirement, or chronic where the nutritional requirement delays growth and development, resulting in continual attempts to overcome the shortage. Nutritional demand will depend internally on cockroach age, sex, and stage of development and externally on what nutrients are available, also the concentration, ingredient type, and location. Understanding nutritional status and nutrient availability is critical for ensuring that cockroaches will identify a bait as a food item, test the food item, and continue consumption until sufficient intake of toxin results in lethality. Failure to fully stimulate bait consumption will result in cockroaches surviving a sublethal dose, with possible changes in behavior(s) towards further consumption of bait. Continued failure may permit the genetic selection and amplified displays of aversion (or non-stimulation) in future generations.