Report 
  Title  
  ENHANCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERES TO CONTROL INSECT PESTS IN MUSEUMS AND SIMILAR SENSITIVE AREAS
  Key Words  
  Carbon dioxide, oxygen, stored product beetles, nitrogen
  Author  
  D. A. REIERSON, M. K. RUST, J. M. KENNEDY, V. DANIEL, AND S. MAEKAWA
  Abstract  
  Anoxia resulting from contained atmospheres of ~ 0 .1 % oxygen (1,000 ppm) was lethal to all stadia of a variety of insect pests commonly encountered in museums and other sensitive areas. Low % 02 in a closed system was achieved and maintained by displacement with gaseous nitrogen. The effect of anoxia on representative species of cockroaches (Dictyoptera), fabric beetles (Dermestidae), stored product beetles (Anobiidae), termites (Rhinotermitidae), and wood-boring beetles (Lyctidae) was evaluated. Most insects succumbed within hours or a few days exposure. A few, such as larval carpet beetles, Anthrenus flavipes, eggs of cigarette beetles, Lasioderma serricorne, and powderpost beetles, Lyctus spp, survived >8- day exposure. Length of exposure for mortality (LT) appeared to be related to metabolic rate and to the ability of the exposed stage to regulate water loss. In this regard, LT was generally inversely correlated to % 02 and to exposure temperature and relative humidity. Increasing 02 to 0.32% increased time for LT for some species but not for others. Increasing 02 to 0.62% approximately doubled LT. Adding C02 during anoxic exposure reduced LT, apparently by increasing futile metabolism. It was difficult and relatively costly to maintain <0.1% 02 . Higher 02 rates may be practical for controlling some species if higher temperature or low humidity may be maintained. Methodology for maintaining between <0.1% and 0.62% 02 is discussed.