Report 
  Title  
  REMEDIAL TIMBER TREATMENT WITH BORATES
  Key Words  
  Borate, efficacy, leaching, mobility, mode of action
  Author  
  JEFFREY D. LLOYD, MAGNUS W. SCHOEMAN and ROGER STANLEY
  Abstract  
  This paper reviews the mode of action, environmental, health and efficacy attributes of borates in remedial timber treatment applications, with an emphasis on the use of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. It also reviews recent research investigating the important role moisture plays in both borate diffusion and retention in wood. Up to 60 years of global experience and 10 years with remedial application in North America demonstrate that borates offer: proven efficacy against a range of wood-destroying pests; application flexibility; protection that can last as long as the wood remains in service; and a good margin of safety to humans and the environment. Efficacy is broad spectrum and probably via metabolic inhibition.