Tropical Bed Bug Infestation Dynamics In Malaysia: Evaluation Of Insecticide Resistance Level And Susceptibility On Pyrethroid And Carbamate Insecticides (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
  Key Words  
  tropical bed bug, Malaysia, infestation dynamics, pyrethroid, carbamate, insecticide resistance
  Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid and Zulaikha Zahran
  Currently pest control industries are having difficulties in controlling bed bugs, specifically in workers’ dormitories and residential houses. Survey of bed bug infestations across Peninsular Malaysia by collecting samples from residential houses, dormitories, hotels and motels and flats and apartments. The survey was carried out in Pulau Pinang, Perlis, Perak, Kedah, Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor and federal territory of Kuala Lumpur. Highest number of collected species, Cimex hemipterus, resulted in Perak (24.8%) in workers’ dormitories. No bed bugs were found in Kelantan. They are known to infest mattresses, cracks and crevices of walls and floors as well as cushion seats. Collected bed bugs were then colonized in the laboratory for resistance study and mortality testing on bed bugs using natural enemies of insect, fungi as an introduction to non-chemical method in managing the insect pest. In insecticide resistance bioassay, deltamethrin and pyrethroid were used against live following protocol of World Health Organization (WHO) insecticide-impregnated papers. Triplicates of ten adult bed bugs, each replicate contained impregnated papers and the insect were left exposed for 14 days. Resistance in bed bugs were detected in AR strain (LT50 = 466.119h) after exposed to deltamethrin insecticides. Propoxur was highly effective against IP strain due to the low lethal value, LT50 = 260.793h. There was a significant difference between the insecticide groups and bed bugs strains. Interaction among the strains exposed to deltamethrin also showed significant difference but not in propoxur.