Report 
  Title  
  Control Of Indigenous And Exotic Mosquitoes In Germany
  Key Words  
  Copper, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, container breeding mosquitoes
  Author  
  Norbert Becker
  Abstract  
  In Germany since more than three decades products based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus have been successfully used as biological control agents against floodwater mosquitoes, mainly Aedes vexans and Ochlerotatus sticticus as well as against house mosquito Culex pipiens. Over 4.000 km2 of breeding areas have been treated with various Bti-formulations as ice-granules by helicopters, fluid and powder formulations mixed with water by ground application, resulting in a reduction of the mosquito population year by year more than 95% and without evidence of any harmful impact on the environment. Globalization resulting in increased international trade and human mobility is responsible for the quick spread of pathogens and neozoa such as container-breeding Aedes/Ochlerotatus mosquitoes. Amongst them the most important ones are Ae. albopictus and Oc. japonicus in Germany. The control of container breeding mosquitoes is mainly based on environmental management and the use of Bti-tablets in the frame of community participation. Since 2013 copper as a mosquitocidal metal has been tested successfully to avoid mosquito breeding.