Report 
  Title  
  Gonadal Development In Winged Forms Of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) With Application To Management
  Key Words  
  Carpenter ants, ovaries, testes, management
  Author  
  Laurel D. Hansen And Jonell S. Witherell
  Abstract  
  Development of the reproductive stages in the life cycle of ants varies among species. Formicine ants usually overwinter or spend development time in the nest between eclosion and the mating flight. Many of the Dolichodorinae and Myrmecinae mate in the nest and colonies reproduce by budding. A formicine example, Camponotus modoc, emerges as winged forms in August and remains in the colony until swarming the following spring. The emergence of reproductives in structural infestations throughout the winter months creates management concerns as winged forms, particularly males, make sporadic weak fights to windows or lighted areas. Reproductive systems of males and winged females were examined following eclosion and at threemonth intervals until the spring nuptial flight to determine development of sexual organs. Spermatogenesis was complete by emergence, with no further development of the male gonads and apparent shrinkage of the testes in the first week following eclosion. Ovariole number varies among species of Camponotus. Each ovary of C. modoc, composed of 48-50 ovarioles, contained oocytes with varying degrees of development through the winter until by spring the terminal ovum in many ovarioles had completed vitellogenesis. Oogenesis and vietllogenesis occur throughout the life of the queen. Winged females and males occur in structures particularly in winter months before the nuptial flight and challenge management strategies in inspections for location and treatment.