Resurrection of bait aversion and management strategies for the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)
  Key Words  
  Bait avoidance, Blattella germanica, control failure, management strategy
  N. Bao and T. Mašom
  Bait aversion has recently resurfaced, approximately six to ten years after the first known case of bait aversion (glucose aversion) was corrected. Anecdotal reports from Pest Management Professionals have indicated poor acceptance and control failures on commercial cockroach gel baits since late 1999. We initiated a program to collect and evaluate cockroaches from accounts reporting control failures with Maxforce FC and other commercial gel baits. Laboratory studies confirmed that gel baits were significantly less effective in control of the field-collected strains than the susceptible laboratory strains and that bait aversion was evident. Since Maxforce FC is not formulated with glucose, the scattered declines in efficacy across the United States were due to other factors. Rotations between major commercially available gel baits did not reverse control failures. After several years of lab and field trials of 50 experimental gel formulations, Bayer Environmental Science developed Maxforce FC, which has been effective against all bait aversive German cockroach strains. We provide recommendations for effective cockroach management program in the presence of potential bait aversion.